The sperm don’t care how they got there, Rep. Akin

17 c. rendition of human inside sperm.
Public domain in US.
[Trigger warning: frank language about sexual assault]
By Emily Willingham
By now, you’ve probably heard the phrase: legitimate rape. As oxymoronic and moronic as it seems, a Missouri congressman and member of the House Science, Space, and Technology committee used this term to argue that women who experience “legitimate rape” likely can’t become pregnant because their bodies “shut that whole thing down.”
If his words and ideas sound archaic, it’s because they are. Welcome to the 13th century, Congressman Todd Akin. It’s possible that this idea that a woman couldn’t become pregnant because of rape arose around that time, at least as part of the UK legal code. People once thought that a woman couldn’t conceive unless she enjoyed herself during the conception–i.e., had an orgasm–so if a rape resulted in pregnancy, the woman must somehow have been having a good time. Ergo, ’twas not a rape. This Guardian piece expands on that history but doesn’t get into why such a concept lingers into the 21st century. A lot of that lingering has to do with a strong desire on the part of some in US political circles to make a rape-related pregnancy the woman’s fault so that she must suffer the consequences. Those consequences, of course, are to be denied abortion access, to carry a pregnancy to term, and to bring a child of rape into the world.
This idea that pregnancy could determine whether or not a rape occurred was still alive and kicking in 20th century US politics, so Akin’s comments, as remarkably magic-based and unscientific as they are, are still not that shocking to some groups. In 1995, another Republican member of the House, Henry Aldridge, made a very similar observation, saying that women can’t get pregnant from rape because “the juices don’t flow, the body functions don’t work.” A year after Aldridge made those comments, a paper published in a US gynecology journal reported that pregnancies from rape occur “with significant frequency.” That frequency at the time was an estimated 32,101 pregnancies resulting from rape in a single year. In other words, the “body functions” did work, and “that whole thing” did not shut down in 32,000 cases in one year alone.
Consider that current estimates are that 1 out of every 6 women in the United States will be a victim of completed or attempted rape in her lifetime and that by the close of the 20th century, almost 18 million women were walking around having experienced either an attempted or a completed rape. The standard expectation for pregnancy rates, whether from an act of violence (rape) or mutually agreed, unprotected intercourse, is about 5%.
In his comments, Akin used the phrase “legitimate rape.” He joins with his colleague of 17 years ago in ignorance about human reproduction. But he also joins legions of people with a history stretching back hundreds of years, people who blamed women for everything having to do with sex and human reproduction. In the medieval world, if a woman bore a daughter and not a son, that was her fault. If she made a man so hot blooded that he forced himself on her, that was her fault for being so attractive, not his for being a rapist. In Akin’s world, in Aldridge’s world, a woman doesn’t need abortion access or a morning after pill to prevent a pregnancy following rape because the determinant of whether or not the rape was “legitimate” is whether or not she becomes pregnant. And the woman, you see, in the Akin/Aldridge cosmos, can “shut that whole thing down” and keep “bodily functions” from working if the rape was, you know, a real, legit-type rape.
In addition to quick primer on human reproduction, I’m offering here a couple of quick points about rape.
Rape is usually an act of violence or power. It is not just an act of sex. It uses sex as a weapon, as though it were a gun or a billy club. It is an act of violence or power against another person without that person’s consent. Nine out of ten rape victims are female. There is not a category of “not legitimate” rape. Sexual violence inflicted without consent is rape. Period.
The thing is, sperm don’t care how they get inside a vagina. They may arrive by turkey baster, catheter, penile delivery, or other creative mechanisms. Any rancher involved in livestock reproduction can tell you that violating a mammal with an object that delivers sperm is no obstacle to impregnating said mammal, no matter how stressed or unwilling the mammal may be.
Akin and Aldridge aren’t the first politicians to manifest a sad lack of understanding of the female body and of human reproduction. Mitt Romney himself has provoked a few howls thanks to his ignorance about birth control, leading Rachel Maddow to offer up a primer on female anatomy for the fellas out there. 
Here’s my own quick primer. About the female: The human female takes some time producing a ready egg for fertilization. That time is often quoted as 28 days, but it varies quite a bit. When the egg is ready, it leaves the ovary and begins a journey down the fallopian tube (also called the oviduct) to the uterus. During its brief sojourn in the fallopian tube, if the egg encounters sperm, fertilization likely will take place. If the egg shows up in the fallopian tube and sperm are already there, hanging out, fertilization is also a strong possibility. In other words, if the egg is around at the same time as the sperm, regardless of how the sperm got there, fertilization can–and often will–happen. The fertilized egg will then continue the journey to the uterus, where implantation into the wall of the uterus happens. Again, if a fertilized egg shows up, the uterine wall doesn’t care how it got fertilized in the first place.
Now to the human male. With ejaculation, a man releases between 40 and 150 million sperm. If ejaculated into the vagina, these sperm immediately begin their short lifetime journey toward the fallopian tube. Some can arrive there in as little as 30 minutes. A woman who has been raped could well already be carrying a fertilized egg by the time authorities begin taking her report. Sperm can live up to three days, at least, possibly as long as five days, hanging out around the fallopian tube. So if an egg isn’t there at the time a rape occurs, if the woman releases one in the days following, she can still become pregnant. Again, the fallopian tubes and ovaries do not care how the sperm got there, legitimately or otherwise.
Although Akin talks about “legitimate rape,” what he and Aldridge and so many other men truly are seeking to do is a twofold burdening of women for having the temerity to experience and report rape. If a woman becomes pregnant because of a rape, you see, then it was not rape. Point one. Point two, because of point one, a woman who reports a rape but becomes pregnant was really engaged in a willing sexual act and therefore must bear–literally–the consequences and, yes, punishment of engaging in that act. She must carry a pregnancy to term. She cannot have access to morning after pills or abortion to prevent or end a rape-related pregnancy because if she’s pregnant, it wasn’t rape, and if she’s pregnant, well, that’s totally her fault for not having her body “stop juices” and “shut that whole thing down.” Got that?
Get this: If you’re a woman who has just been raped, among the many other considerations you deserve, you deserve a morning after pill as part of your rape treatment, if you so desire. Because the hormones in the pills can prevent the impending release of an egg, among other things, create an inhospitable uterine environment for pregnancy, this series of pills can block the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterine wall** they can save you the added pain, burden, and anguish of a pregnancy resulting from a rape. That, Srs. Akin and Aldridge, is the only established way to “shut that whole thing down,” and it’s a right that every single woman should have.

**A commenter has alerted us (thank you!) to information that came out in June regarding FDA claims about implantation prevention with the morning after pill, which may not be accurate. More on that here and here (NYT). Planned Parenthood cites the IUD as a form of emergency contraception that presumably would prevent implantation. 
These views are the opinion of the author and do not necessarily reflect or disagree with those of the DXS editorial team.

Related links worth reading (updated 8/21/12)

  • io9 breaks down more of the data about rapes and pregnancies, including information about why mammals don’t tend to engage in sperm selection
  • David Kroll notes the problem with having Akin on the House sci and tech committee
  • At the New Statesman, what people really mean when they talk about “legitimate rape”
  • Jezebel’s guide to “legitimate rape”
  • Kate Clancy puts rape stats in context and discusses why pre-eclampsia is not a mechanism for “shutting that whole thing down”
  • Melanie Tannenbaum lays it out and talks about the “Just-world fallacy” that drives thinking like Akin’s 

 

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Emily Willingham

About Emily Willingham

Emily, co-founder and editor in chief of DoubleXScience, is an editor and a research scientist whose investigations involve sex determination/differentiation and developmental endocrinology, toxicology, genetics, and physiology. She also is the ambigendered partner of a Viking and the mother of three very interesting sons.

8 thoughts on “The sperm don’t care how they got there, Rep. Akin

  1. I thought that a group of scientists had concluded that there was no evidence that the morning-after pill (or any pill known) actually prevented implantation. I think its mechanism of preventing pregnancy is different.

  2. Thanks for the great article. I have to make one point, though:

    “Because the hormones in the pills can, among other things, create an inhospitable uterine environment for pregnancy, this series of pills can block the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterine wall… “

    This is not correct, and is one of THE very reasons certain groups are trying to block access to emergency contraception and other methods of hormonal birth control: because they claim it acts as an “abortifacient” by interfering with a fertilized egg.

    But there is no scientific evidence that the “hostile endometrium” theory is valid for either EC or daily hormonal methods. The main method of action is by preventing ovulation. Studies have shown that among women who have already ovulated (or are just about to), taking the pill does not effect pregnancy rates. If you Google “mechanism of action” (with relation to various methods) you will find a some excellent information.

    Thanks again.

  3. It should also be pointed out that pregnancy is not a benign condition–the adaptations that a woman’s body must make to support another life put the woman at greater risk for a number of conditions–dangerously high blood pressures, seizures, diabetes, and greater susceptibility to infectious diseases come to mind immediately. Pregnancy itself can be literally life-threatening, not often, but the dialog on carrying rapist’s babies doesn’t seem to include the actual physical health risks to the woman. Just one more reason, if even one were needed, that forcing women to maintain rape pregnancies is disgusting, immoral and inhumane.

  4. Thanks … because of a previous comment noting that, we have already made a correction. I know the history of trying to block access based on the rejection of a fertilized egg, which still should not be relevant, of course, and of course, now there is skepticism from the same groups that these latest assertions about the EC idea aren’t valid (e.g., here http://www.morningafterpill.org/how-does-it-work.html). There seem to be various equivocations about uterine lining effects, e.g., http://ec.princeton.edu/questions/ecwork.html and page 5 of this review from July 2012: http://ec.princeton.edu/questions/EC-Review.pdf [PDF]), but that’s all another post. In fact, it will be another post.

  5. @shannon @prudehawkeye @emily

    thanks for the info on the morning after pill. as a scientist & ally w/ a wife who works in rape crisis, I’m a bit surprised that this is the first time I’ve heard that the “preventing implantation” mechanism is bunk.

    looking forward to the follow-up post :)

  6. Thanks for this eye-opener. It’s frightening to know our country is being guided – at least in part – by these Neanderthals…

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